Resources and links related to X-ray free electron lasers, currently operational and the ones under construction. Figure copyright: European XFEL (Design: Marc Hermann, tricklabor)


‘Lightsources’ refers generally to synchrotron or free-electron laser (FEL) facilities that provide extremely bright and focused light at X-ray, UV, visible or IR range for research purposes. This page contains resources for FELs operating at X-ray energies (the so-called 4th generation X-ray sources). X-rays have wavelengths 0.01 - 10 nm, corresponding to energies 100 eV - 100 keV. Hard X-rays refer to energies over 5-10 keV, soft X-rays to those below.

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